Hypertext Markup Language

What is HTML? Where did it come from?

  •  Tim Berners Lee proposed HTML in 1991. Codification of HTML in1997 by W3C (World Wide Web consortium organization that defines standard and rules of HTML)
  • In the mid-90s, developers working for Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer ignored the standards defined by W3C for HTML.
  • They introduced features like CSS, JavaScript, new tags (e.g. :< table>).
  • These features proved to be essential for the increase in the popularity of the web.
  • Acknowledge the importance of these features, W3C froze HTML specification at version 4.01.

Definition of Html: Html is defined as a markup language. A markup is a way of glossing a document in such a way as to make the explanation diverse from the text being glossed.

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XHTML (Extensible HTML)

  • Instead of growing HTML, the W3C turned its attention to a new specification called XHTML 1.o in the late 1990s.
  • As the web evolved in the 1990s, web browsers evolved into quite permissive and lenient programs.
  • They could have handled sloppy HTML i.e., missing or malformed tags and other syntax errors.
  • The goal of XHTML with its strict rules was to make page representation more likely by driving web authors to create web pages lacking syntax errors.
  • To help web developers, 2 versions of XHTML were created: XHTML 1.0 strict and XHTML 1.0 transitional.
  •  The strict version was meant to be rendered by a browser using the strict syntax rules and tags support described by the W3C XHTML 1.0 specification.
  • The transitional endorsement is a more magnanimous flavor of XHTML and was meant to act as a fleeting transition to the subsequent global adoption of XHTML strictly.
  • The payoff of XHTML strictly was to be predictable and standardized web document. The focus in the professional web development community was on standard syntax.
  • The key part of a standard movement in the web development community of the 2000s was the use of HTML validators (validators .w3.org- A website used to check whether a web page follows rules of XHTML)
  • In the mid 2000s the W3C presented a draft of XHTML 2.0 specifications. Backward compatibility with the HTML and XHTML 1.0 was dropped.
  • XHTML 2.0 dropped tags like < img>, <a>, <br> and numbered heading <h1>.
  • This caused a sort of discomfort to browser manufacturers and web developers as they had to make changes to all the existing web pages.


  • A group within W3C was formed named WHATWG (Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group). Members of this group were developers of Opera and Mozilla.
  • The main reason for forming WHATAG was the dissatisfaction with strict XHTML 2.0 specifications and its imposition on web developers.
  • WHATAG has three main objectives:
  1. Specify unambiguously how the browser should deal with the invalid markup.
  2. Provide an open, non-proprietary programming framework (via JavaScript) for creating a rich web application.
  3. Be backward compatible with the existing web.
  • This proposal was welcomed by web developers. This forced W3C to stop working on XHTML 2.0 and adopt WHATAG. This standard was then named HTML5.

Difference between HTML and XTML

Html is much easier to write. XHTML entails a level of discipline many of us indeed resist.
With a huge number of HTML documents available on the web, the browser will continue to support HTML as far as one can see into the future.  Some older browsers have problems with some parts of XHTML.
HTML is used to display data. XHTML is used for describing data.

A quick tour of HTML elements

Headings: HTML provides six levels of headings (h1 to h6) with the higher heading number indicating a heading of less importance. Headings are also used by the browser to create a document outline for the page, this outline is used by the browser to render the pages. Headings are also used by web authors when they write JavaScript to manipulate elements or they use CSS to style different HTML elements. The browser has its default styling for each heading level however, it’s easily modified using CSS.

Paragraphs and Division: The <p> element is the most basic unit of text in an HTML document. A <p> element is a container for the inline element. An inline text element does not disrupt the flow of text. Indentation of elements is purely optional and does not affect the display of content.

The <div> element is also a container element and is used to create a logical grouping of content. The <div> element has no intrinsic presentation, it is frequently used in contemporary CSS-based layouts to mark out sections.

Links: A <a> defines a hyperlink. Links are an essential feature of all web pages. Links are created using <a> element (a stands for anchor). A link has two main parts: Destination and Label. A label can be a text or another HTML element such as an image.

Advantage of HTML

Tranquil to create a webpage and it is plain text so it is easy to edit it also. HTML is reckless to download because the text is compressible. The main advantage of HTML is it is used to present anything on a webpage. It does not require any kind of location or font names. There is no essential software required for formatting and compiling. HTML displays only that content that we write so it is static code. HTML is almost sustained on all browsers.

Career growth in HTML

People choosing HTML as their professional path should be a computer science graduate or any other certification such as a graphic designer or web designer is valid. There are many more online portals to learn and acquire HTML skills and now you can learn HTML in Hindi too!! We will discuss this later HTML in Hindi.

HTML developer can start his career as a junior front-end developer and so on after attainment of 3-4 years in this position he can be promoted to a mid-level developer or senior developer based on his skills and dedication towards his work. The average salary of an HTML developer is 300000, salary will be varying according to the organization. You can also be a freelancer to glass case your talent in designing web pages. The demand for HTML developers all over the world increased a few years back so being an HTML developer can give wings to your career.

HTML in Hindi 

Yes!! You heard correctly HTML in Hindi. Isn’t it good to learn desired skills in our native language? Now here is Great Learning providing courses of HTML in HINDI language so that native learners can easily understand the concepts and implement them. This course is for beginners and the complete basics of HTML concepts are covered under this course. This course is very helpful for the people who are just keeping their feet as web-developers in their professional life. And not to forget this course is completely cost-free! So what are you waiting for? Hurry up and get registered for HTML in Hindi in Great Learning and get certified by them.

Hope this article helps you a lot for understanding this topic. If you’re interested in free online courses with certificates, So enroll today on Great Learning Programme.

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