What Is Inflationary Gap?

Are you curious to know what is inflationary gap? You have come to the right place as I am going to tell you everything about inflationary gap in a very simple explanation. Without further discussion let’s begin to know what is inflationary gap?

In the realm of macroeconomics, the concept of an inflationary gap plays a pivotal role in understanding the dynamics of an economy. This article aims to provide a comprehensive exploration of what an inflationary gap is, its formula, examples, causes, and its significance in economic analysis.

What Is Inflationary Gap?

An inflationary gap refers to the difference between the actual level of real GDP in an economy and its potential GDP at full employment. In simpler terms, it signifies a situation where the economy is operating beyond its capacity, leading to upward pressure on prices and inflationary tendencies.

What Is Inflationary Gap Formula:

The formula for calculating the inflationary gap is straightforward:

Inflationary Gap=Actual GDP−Potential GDP

This formula provides a quantitative measure of the extent to which the economy has exceeded its sustainable capacity.

What Is Inflationary Gap Example:

Consider an economy with a potential GDP of $10 trillion. If the actual GDP surpasses this and reaches $11 trillion, the inflationary gap would be $1 trillion. This indicates that the economy is operating beyond its full employment level, potentially leading to inflationary pressures.

What Is ‘inflationary Gap Class 12:

In the context of a class 12 economics curriculum, understanding the inflationary gap is integral. Students delve into the causes, consequences, and policy measures related to inflationary gaps, gaining insights into the macroeconomic factors influencing a nation’s economic health.

Deflationary Gap:

In contrast to an inflationary gap, a deflationary gap occurs when the actual GDP falls short of the potential GDP. This scenario implies that the economy is operating below its full employment capacity, leading to unemployment and downward pressure on prices.

What Is Inflationary Gap And Deflationary Gap:

Understanding both the inflationary and deflationary gaps is crucial for comprehending the cyclical fluctuations in an economy. While an inflationary gap indicates potential overheating and rising prices, a deflationary gap signals underutilization of resources and economic slack.

Inflationary Gap Diagram:

A visual representation of the inflationary gap can be depicted through a graph comparing the actual GDP and potential GDP. The vertical distance between these two curves represents the inflationary gap. This diagram visually elucidates the gap’s magnitude and economic implications.

Causes Of Inflationary Gap:

  • Excessive Demand: A surge in aggregate demand beyond the economy’s capacity.
  • Cost-Push Inflation: Rising production costs leading to increased prices.
  • Monetary Policy: Loose monetary policies resulting in excess liquidity.
  • Fiscal Policy: Expansionary fiscal policies increasing government spending.

What Is Inflationary Gap:

In summary, an inflationary gap occurs when an economy operates beyond its potential, leading to an imbalance between aggregate demand and supply. It signals a state of economic overheating and potential inflationary pressures. The understanding of inflationary gaps is crucial for policymakers, economists, and investors in navigating economic trends and formulating appropriate strategies to address emerging challenges.


The concept of an inflationary gap serves as a vital tool in macroeconomic analysis, offering insights into the health and trajectory of an economy. By comprehending the causes, consequences, and implications of inflationary gaps, stakeholders can make informed decisions, formulate effective policies, and contribute to the sustainable growth and stability of the economic landscape.


What Do You Mean By Inflationary Gap?

An inflationary gap is a difference between the full employment gross domestic product and the actual reported GDP number. It represents the extra output as measured by GDP between what it would be under the natural rate of unemployment and the reported GDP number.

Is Inflationary Gap Good Or Bad?

An inflationary gap can have harmful effects on an economy. When there is more money chasing after fewer goods and services, it leads to inflation which can erode the purchasing power of consumers and businesses. Inflation can also lead to higher interest rates, which can discourage investment and economic growth.

What Is Meant By Deflationary Gap?

Deflationary Gap is the amount by which the aggregate demand falls short of aggregate supply at the full employment level. It is called deflationary because it leads to a fall in the price level. Open Market Operations refer to buying and selling of government securities by the central bank in the open market.

What Is An Inflationary Gap In The Real World Examples?

Suppose at full employment without inflation, the people in an economy demand 500,000 sweaters a year. Inflation occurs, then wages increase, so people now have more income. They demand 550,000 sweaters a year. The increase of 50,000 sweaters represents an inflationary gap.

I Have Covered All The Following Queries And Topics In The Above Article

What Is Inflationary Gap In Economics

What Is Inflationary Gap Formula

What Is Inflationary Gap Example

What Is ‘inflationary Gap Class 12

Deflationary Gap

What Is Inflationary Gap And Deflationary Gap

Inflationary Gap Diagram

Causes Of Inflationary Gap

What Is Inflationary Gap